środa, 30 września 2015

Fwd: NYT Now: Your Wednesday Evening Briefing


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To: pascal.alter@gmail.com

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Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Wednesday, September 30, 2015

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Your Wednesday Evening Briefing
Good evening. Here's the start of tonight's briefing. Go to the full briefing. 
1. Russia added a new layer of danger and complexity to Syria's brutal sectarian war, with airstrikes against what President Vladimir Putin called "international terrorists." But the bombs fell in an area controlled by rebels fighting the Syrian government, not by the Islamic State. Above right, Russia's foreign minister, Sergey Lavrov, on the third day of the U.N. General Assembly.
2. As many as 30,000 foreign recruits have poured into Syria, many of them to fight with the Islamic State. But a little-known subset of Americans has gone to fight against ISIS.
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Fwd: Science X Newsletter Wednesday, Sep 30


Real-time analysis of metabolic products

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From: Newsletter Phys.org <not-for-reply@physorg.com>
Date: Thu, Oct 1, 2015 at 3:46 AM
Subject: Science X Newsletter Wednesday, Sep 30
To: Pascal Alter <pascal.alter@gmail.com>

Simulation for Everyone at the COMSOL Conference 2015: http://goo.gl/RF3BlK

Attend the world's largest meeting on multiphysics simulation and application design and hear about the award winning software from industry leaders. Register today! http://goo.gl/RF3BlK


Dear Pascal Alter,

Here is your customized Phys.org Newsletter for September 30, 2015:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

- Small entropy changes allow quantum measurements to be nearly reversed
- One-way sound tunnel offers novel way to control acoustic waves
- Researchers print inside gels to create unique shapes
- Radio frequency 'harvesting' tech unveiled in UK
- 'Avatars' reveal new genetic sources of drug response in late-stage colorectal therapy
- Scientists create world's largest catalog of human genomic variation (Update)
- Genes that protect African children from developing malaria identified
- Experimental cancer drug shows therapeutic promise in mouse models of multiple sclerosis
- Researchers find genes that shut down HIV-1
- Price of solar energy in the United States has fallen to 5c/kWh on average
- Layman help sought in solving dwarf planet mysteries
- Four gut bacteria decrease asthma risk in infants
- Dormant viral genes may awaken to cause ALS
- Glowing sea turtle, like red and green spaceship, spotted
- 3-D printing techniques help surgeons carve new ears

Nanotechnology news

Disappearing carbon circuits on graphene could have security, biomedical uses

In the television drama "Mission Impossible," instructions for the mission were delivered on an audio tape that destroyed itself immediately after being played. Should that series ever be revived, its producers might want to talk with Georgia Institute of Technology professor Andrei Fedorov about using his "disappearing circuits" to deliver the instructions.

New research puts us closer to DIY spray-on solar cell technology

A new study out of St. Mary's College of Maryland puts us closer to do-it-yourself spray-on solar cell technology—promising third-generation solar cells utilizing a nanocrystal ink deposition that could make traditional expensive silicon-based solar panels a thing of the past.

Sniffing out cancer with improved 'electronic nose' sensors

Scientists have been exploring new ways to "smell" signs of cancer by analyzing what's in patients' breath. In ACS' journal Nano Letters, one team now reports new progress toward this goal. The researchers have developed a small array of flexible sensors, which accurately detect compounds in breath samples that are specific to ovarian cancer.

Motorized nanocar powered by light

Constructing nanomachines that move controllably across surfaces has the potential to enable researchers to build structures on the nanoscale from the bottom up, but is challenging on several fronts. How such a device can be "powered" so that it moves across a surface without sticking to it and how its movement can then be tracked are questions tackled by the group of James M. Tour in their latest report about the design of a new nanocar in Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry.

Physics news

Small entropy changes allow quantum measurements to be nearly reversed

(Phys.org)—In 1975, Swedish physicist Göran Lindblad developed a theorem that describes the change in entropy that occurs during a quantum measurement. Today, this theorem is a foundational component of quantum information theory, underlying such important concepts as the uncertainty principle, the second law of thermodynamics, and data transmission in quantum communication systems.

One-way sound tunnel offers novel way to control acoustic waves

(Phys.org)—Scientists have designed and built an acoustic one-way tunnel that allows sound to pass through in one direction only while blocking it from passing through in the opposite direction. The tunnel is completely open to light and heat, which can pass through in both directions, but sound waves are blocked in one direction due to acoustic metamaterials placed on the sides of the tunnel. The acoustic one-way tunnel has potential applications for anti-noise windows and vent ducts, as well as medical ultrasound.

Scientists produce status check on quantum teleportation

Mention the word 'teleportation' and for many people it conjures up "Beam me up, Scottie" images of Captain James T Kirk. But in the last two decades quantum teleportation – transferring the quantum structure of an object from one place to another without physical transmission—has moved from the realms of Star Trek fantasy to tangible reality.

At the edge of a quantum gas: Physicists observe skipping orbits in the quantum Hall regime

JQI scientists have achieved a major milestone in simulating the dynamics of condensed-matter systems – such as the behavior of charged particles in semiconductors and other materials – through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum-mechanical models.

Measuring X-rays created by lightning strikes on an aircraft in-flight

Scientists have recorded measurements of X-rays of energies up to 10 MeV caused by electrons accelerated in the intense electric fields inside a thundercloud.

ORNL microscopy finds evidence of high-temperature superconductivity in single layer

Electron microscopy at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory is pointing researchers closer to the development of ultra-thin materials that transfer electrons with no resistance at relatively high temperatures.

Invisibility cloak might enhance efficiency of solar cells

Success of the energy turnaround will depend decisively on the extended use of renewable energy sources. However, their efficiency partly is much smaller than that of conventional energy sources. The efficiency of commercially available photovoltaic cells, for instance, is about 20%. Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now published an unconventional approach to increasing the efficiency of the panels. Optical invisibility cloaks guide sunlight around objects that cast a shadow on the solar panel, such as contacts for current extraction.

Computing a textbook of crystal physics

Disturbing a material's crystal lattice can create a charge imbalance that leads to a voltage across the material. This phenomena, called the "piezoelectric effect," was first demonstrated in 1880 by Jacques and Pierre Curie in materials such as quartz, topaz and Rochelle salt. Today, piezoelectricity is recognized as a valuable property and the market for piezoelectric materials is rapidly expanding with applications that encompass a variety of technologies, ranging from medical imaging to sonar to energy harvesting.

New way of retaining quantum memories stored in light

A team of Chinese physicists has now developed a way to confine light. This is significant because the approach allows quantum memories stored within photons to be retained. These findings stem from a study by Nan Sun from Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, China, and colleagues, which has just been published in EPJ D. The results may herald the advent of a multitude of hybrid, optoelectronic devices relying on the use of quantum information stored in photons for processing information that can be used in communication networks or quantum computing.

Earth news

Geologists presents explanation for smaller than expected tremor during the april 2014 Iquique earthquake

Chile is one of the countries that is most at risk from damaging earthquakes. Therefore, no one was caught by surprise when a series of tremors struck the area around the northern Chilean city of Iquique in spring 2014. The main quake on 1 April reached a magnitude of 8.1 and triggered a tsunami. But experts were surprised that the quake was not as large and damaging as expected, and that it affected only a limited region. Geologists from the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel and the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", the German Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and the Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC) in Barcelona (Spain) now presented a possible explanation for the smaller than expected tremor.

Plastic-eating worms may offer solution to mounting waste, researchers discover

Consider the plastic foam cup. Every year, Americans throw away 2.5 billion of them. And yet, that waste is just a fraction of the 33 million tons of plastic Americans discard every year. Less than 10 percent of that total gets recycled, and the remainder presents challenges ranging from water contamination to animal poisoning.

Gulf Stream ring water intrudes onto continental shelf like 'Pinocchio's nose'

Ocean robots installed off the coast of Massachusetts have helped scientists understand a previously unknown process by which warm Gulf Stream water and colder waters of the continental shelf exchange. The process occurs when offshore waters, originating in the tropics, intrude onto the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf and meet the waters originating in regions near the Arctic. This process can greatly affect shelf circulation, biogeochemistry and fisheries.

Surface of the oceans affects climate more than thought

The oceans seem to produce significantly more isoprene, and consequently affect stronger the climate than previously thought. This emerges from a study by the Institute of Catalysis and Environment in Lyon (IRCELYON, CNRS / University Lyon 1) and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), which had studied samples of the surface film in the laboratory. The results underline the global significance of the chemical processes at the border between ocean and atmosphere, write the researchers in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.

Background ozone a major issue in US West

Levels of "background ozone"—ozone pollution present in a region but not originating from local, human-produced sources—are high enough in Northern California and Nevada that they leave little room for local ozone production under proposed stricter U.S. ground-level ozone standards, finds a new NASA-led study.

SMOS meets ocean monsters

ESA's SMOS and two other satellites are together providing insight into how surface winds evolve under tropical storm clouds in the Pacific Ocean. This new information could to help predict extreme weather at sea.

New water-tracing technology to help protect groundwater

UNSW Australia researchers have used new water-tracing technology in the Sydney Basin for the first time to determine how groundwater moves in the different layers of rock below the surface.

Tillage timing influences nitrogen availability and loss on organic farms

In the battle against weeds, tillage is one of the strongest weapons at the disposal of organic or ecologically based farmers. But, depending on when it is used, tillage can also be a strong driver of nitrogen losses that contribute to groundwater pollution, according to researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.

NASA snow data that helps California put to work in Colorado

NASA is providing drought-stricken California with valuable data about how much water is locked up in the scant Sierra Nevada snow, and now Colorado is trying the technique in the mountains where the Rio Grande begins its journey to New Mexico and Texas.

Taj Mahal needs nine-year mud pack to tackle pollution

The Taj Mahal will need nine years of mud packs to remove yellow stains from its white marble walls caused by air pollution, the Times of India reported on Wednesday.

Wildfires continue to beleaguer the US western states

Wildfires continue to plague several states in the West. In this image taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument that flies onboard NASA's Aqua satellite, fires can be seen in Washington, Idaho, and Montana. The image was captured on September 28, 2015. The multiple red pixels are heat signatures (red), when accompanied by smoke as in this image, it is indicative of fire activity. The smoke appears to be a light gray color.

3D forest reconstruction to improve environmental monitoring

A team from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has produced a 3D reconstruction of Wytham Woods using data collected on a recent field trip, as part of a project to improve forest monitoring techniques.

Simulation and modelling tool to help decision makers involved in large-scale crisis management

Crisis managers and key decision makers routinely face situations that exceed the capacity of local response networks. Furthermore, natural and man-made disasters often do not respect regional or national boundaries, spilling out across borders and creating new unforeseen problems. For these reasons, decision makers need the tools to better understand crisis impacts and have immediate access to multi-organisational and multi-national expertise if and when required.

The Danish nitrogen budget in a nutshell

Cutting food waste, improving the recycling of nitrogen in food production and new agricultural technologies are some of the methods that can be used to reduce nitrogen emissions to the environment. These are the conclusion drawn from the development of a new nitrogen budget for Denmark by scientists at Aarhus University.

NASA satellites gather data on Hurricane Joaquin

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM Core satellite and NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Hurricane Joaquin and looked at rainfall, cloud height and extent, revealing heavy rainfall and a more organized system than the previous day.

NASA's GPM analyzes Typhoon Dujuan's large rainfall totals

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite measured the rainfall that Typhoon Dujuan dropped on Taiwan. Highest rainfall totals were over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and along the eastern coast of Taiwan, south of where the typhoon made landfall.

Tropical Depression Marty finally moving away from Mexico coastline

Tropical Depression Marty has been an unwelcome visitor along the western coast of Mexico for a couple of days and is finally, but slowly leaving. NASA's Aqua satellite saw the northeastern quadrant of the storm over the Mexican coast yesterday, September 29.

Covering the bases with cover crops

Most of us think that farmers grow and harvest crops for food. That's true for many crops: they either feed humans or farm animals. However, there's another category of crop that has a vital function in agricultural systems.

EPA sets limit for toxic pollutants released into waterways

The Environmental Protection Agency on Wednesday imposed new standards for mercury, lead and other toxic pollutants that are discharged into the nation's rivers and streams from steam electric power plants.

New Jersey wants another year to settle oyster research flap

New Jersey wants another year to decide one of its most intractable environmental issues: whether to allow experimental oyster colonies in polluted areas to see if they can help clean the waterways.

Astronomy & Space news

Layman help sought in solving dwarf planet mysteries

Throwing open the doors to the hallowed halls of science, stumped researchers welcomed help from the public Wednesday in solving a number of nagging mysteries about dwarf planet Ceres.

Searching for orphan stars amid starbirth fireworks

A new Gemini Observatory image reveals the remarkable "fireworks" that accompany the birth of stars. The image captures in unprecedented clarity the fascinating structures of a gas jet complex emanating from a stellar nursery at supersonic speeds. The striking new image hints at the dynamic (and messy) process of star birth. Researchers believe they have also found a collection of runaway (orphan) stars that result from all this activity..

Rock samples from Western US teach how to hunt for life on Mars

The search for life beyond Earth is one of the grandest endeavors in the history of humankind—a quest that could transform our understanding of our universe both scientifically and spiritually.

The most stable source of light in the world

In order to be able to detect planets comparable to Earth, the CHEOPS satellite, which will be sent into orbit at the end of 2017, must be able to measure the luminosity of a star with inimitable accuracy. In order to test CHEOPS detectors researchers need a stable source of light. However there was no instrument capable of producing a light source with sufficient stability to be used as a reference… until today. A team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, has just filed for a European patent.

Finding that water is likely on Mars improves the prospects of microbial life there

When NASA on Monday confirmed the presence of liquid water on Mars, some scientists said the findings increased the likelihood of finding life on the Red Planet and of learning much more about its past. The discovery also boosted the prospect of an eventual human mission to explore the planet.

An army of tiny robots that tracks galaxies

Why is the universe expanding at an increasing rate? Scientists will attempt to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon by mapping the distribution of galaxies in the universe. Astrophysicists and robotics engineers from EPFL are taking part in this scientific adventure.

Mobile launcher upgraded to launch NASA's mammoth 'Journey to Mars' rocket

NASA's Mobile Launcher (ML) is undergoing major upgrades and modifications at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida enabling the massive structure to launch the agency's mammoth Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and Orion crew capsule on a grand 'Journey to Mars.'

New hypothesis on the origin of Mars megafloods

A study published in Scientific Reports advances a new explanation for the Martian megafloods: enormous discharges of subterranean water that dug out the biggest flood channels in the solar system over 3000 million years ago.

AIDA double mission to divert Didymos asteroid's Didymoon

An ambitious joint US-European mission, called AIDA, is being planned to divert the orbit of a binary asteroid's small moon, as well as to give us new insights into the structure of asteroids. A pair of spacecraft, the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) and NASA-led Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will rendezvous with the Didymos asteroid and its small natural satellite, known informally as 'Didymoon'. Following a period of study of both asteroids and detailed mapping of Didymoon by AIM, DART will impact with Didymoon and AIM will assess the mission's effectiveness in diverting the moon's orbit around Didymos. The AIDA mission is being discussed today at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) 2015 in Nantes, France.

Astronomers "weigh" a galaxy's black hole by studying the einstein ring phenomenon

Astronomers at the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), Postdoctoral Fellow Dr. Kenneth Wong, Assistant Research Fellow Dr. Sherry Suyu and Associate Research Fellow Dr. Satoki Matsushita have recently analyzed the highest-ever resolution images of SDP.81, a gravitational lens, taken by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. From observations of this ring-shaped image known as an Einstein Ring (a result of the gravitational lensing effect), the team calculated that the supermassive black hole located near the center of the lensing galaxy may contain over 300 million times the mass of the sun. Measuring the masses of more distant black holes is the key to understanding the formation and evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. This study marks a new era of research using ALMA and its unparalleled capability for cutting-edge scientific endeavors.

Learning how muscle cells feel the pull of gravity

People can easily feel the presence - or absence - of gravity. Our individual cells actually may be able to sense gravity, too, and that ability could play a role in the loss of muscle that occurs when humans spend time in space. An investigation on the International Space Station to learn more about exactly how cells sense gravity could help scientists figure out ways to prevent that muscle loss, in space and on Earth.

Image: SDO views active region loops

An active region viewed in profile put on quite a show of erupting plasma and looping arches on Sept. 22-23, 2015.

Jupiter's moon Europa

Jupiter's four largest moons – aka. the Galilean moons, consisting of Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto – are nothing if not fascinating. Ever since their discovery over four centuries ago, these moons have been a source of many great discoveries. These include the possibility of internal oceans, the presence of atmospheres, volcanic activity, one has a magnetosphere (Ganymede), and possibly having more water than even Earth.

Comet feature named after late NASA scientist Claudia Alexander

Scientists from the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission are honoring their deceased colleague, Claudia Alexander of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, by naming a feature after her on the mission's target, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

Mechanism of explosions and plasma jets associated with sunspot formation revealed

Sunspots are planet-sized conglomerates of bundles of intense magnetic field lines on the surface of the Sun. They are known to cause explosions (solar flares) which can directly impact our technological infrastructure. What astrophysical mechanisms are responsible for the formation of sunspots and how do they drive explosive events are important questions in our quest to understand the Sun's activity and its magnetic effect on Earth. To tackle these questions, an international research team led by Shin Toriumi (Specially Appointed Assistant Professor at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) analyzed observations of sunspots as they formed taken by Hinode, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) satellites. The team modeled the observations using state-of-the-art numerical simulations performed on the Pleiades supercomputer at the NASA Ames Research Center. The study reve! als how during the course of sunspot formation the territorial struggles between magnetic bundles emerging onto the Sun's surface drive the formation of so-called 'light bridges' and the generation of plasma jets and explosions. This study reveals, for the first time, the intimate relationship between the magnetism hidden in the solar interior, sunspot formation at the surface, and the dynamism of the Sun's atmosphere. The peer-reviewed results will appear in The Astrophysical Journal.

Technology news

Scientists pioneer 3-D-printed drug delivering micro-needles

Researchers have developed a new technique to produce a 3D 'micro-printed' array of needles capable of drug delivery. The technique would offer a pain-free drug delivery device that would allow drugs to diffuse within the body as the biomaterial device degrades in the body. This offers treatments for a wide range of diseases, including melanoma cancers.

New 'performance cloning' techniques designed to boost computer chip memory systems design

North Carolina State University researchers have developed software using two new techniques to help computer chip designers improve memory systems. The techniques rely on "performance cloning," which can assess the behavior of software without compromising privileged data or proprietary computer code.

Price of solar energy in the United States has fallen to 5c/kWh on average

Solar energy pricing is at an all-time low, according to a new report released by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). Driven by lower installed costs, improved project performance, and a race to build projects ahead of a reduction in a key federal incentive, utility-scale solar project developers have been negotiating power sales agreements with utilities at prices averaging just 5¢/kWh. These prices reflect receipt of the 30% federal investment tax credit, which is scheduled to decline to 10% after 2016, and would be higher if not for that incentive. By comparison, average wholesale electricity prices across the United States ranged from 3 to 6 cents/kWh in 2014, depending on the region.

Radio frequency 'harvesting' tech unveiled in UK

An energy harvesting technology that its developers say will be able to turn ambient radio frequency waves into usable electricity to charge low power devices was unveiled in London on Wednesday.

World first 'drone-port' planned in Rwanda

It sounds like science fiction: unmanned drones carrying emergency medicine zooming above the rolling hills of Rwanda.

New TiVo DVR will skip through entire commercial break

TiVo wants to help you skip TV commercials.

Golden oldies: retro videogame fans flock to Tokyo

Tossed aside as outdated junk by some, old videogames such as Donkey Kong and Pac-Man are now getting a new lease of life in Tokyo's vibrant Akihabara district, as growing numbers of die-hard fans seek out vintage classics to relive their youth.

Professor says Volkswagen scandal a failure of 'ethical engineering'

The automobile manufacturer Volkswagen announced Tuesday a plan to fix 11 million of its cars that have software designed to cheat emissions tests in the United States and Europe.

New method to predict the workload for online services

How can overloads on the Internet be prevented? Cloud computing means that more server space can be rented from large computing resources. Ahmed Hassan has developed algorithms for automatic addition and removal of server resources for a web service based on demand. The study was performed at Umeå University in Sweden.

Where were the whistleblowers in the Volkswagen emissions scandal?

The "defeat device" used by Volkswagen to cheat emissions testing in its diesel vehicles may be history's most costly software-related blunder.

Rehabilitation robot could help stroke sufferers learn how to walk again

Stroke sufferers could learn to walk again with a ground-breaking robot developed, in part, by scientists from the University of Hertfordshire.

Shopify adds 'buy now' button for Twitter users

Twitter users soon will be able to shop with a new "Buy Now" button from the e-commerce company Shopify.

Engines of change: Team recovers rare earths from electric and hybrid vehicle motors

In an effort to help develop a sustainable domestic supply of rare earth elements and lessen the United States' dependence on China for materials that are vital to the production of electronics, wind turbines, and many other technologies, two researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) have developed a method of extracting rare earths from the drive units and motors of discarded electric and hybrid cars.

Netflix expands to Spain, Italy, Portugal

US film and television-streaming giant Netflix said Wednesday it will launch in Spain, Italy and Portugal in late October, expanding its global drive to compete with traditional channels.

Report: Twitter founder Jack Dorsey to be CEO for second time

Twitter may be about to end its three-month search for a new CEO where it started: with once-ousted co-founder Jack Dorsey running the short-messaging service.

Rio becomes first Brazilian city to ban use of Uber

The city that hosts next year's Olympic Games has become the first in Brazil to ban the use of smartphone-based ride-hailing-applications like Uber.

Volkswagen loses 'green car of the year' prizes

Volkswagen has lost its "Green Car of the Year" prize for two models that employed technology at the heart of German giant's pollution-cheating scandal, US prize organizers said Wednesday.

Theater ticket app TodayTix hits Silicon Valley stage

A last-minute theater ticket smartphone application that has been a hit on Broadway and London's West End is taking on the Silicon Valley crowd.

Apple Music makes China debut at low price

Apple on Wednesday began offering Apple Music and other digital content in China, putting a bargain price on the service in the high-priority market.

States competing for data centers extend $1.5B in tax breaks

The former limestone mine seemed perfect for a large computer data center. The air was cool. The rock walls provided a defense against natural disasters. And the tunnels bored into a Kansas City hillside had access to abundant electricity and fiber-optic cables.

Chinese solar company blames short-sellers for stock trouble

The chairman of a troubled Chinese solar panel manufacturer has denied wrongdoing and blamed short-selling by hedge funds for a plunge in the price of its Hong Kong-traded shares.

Deep in Estonia's woods, Mother Nature gets a megaphone

Design students in Estonia have come up with a novel way to help nature lovers enjoy the sights and subtle sounds of their country's vast and cherished forests.

Two Uber execs face prison in France as sharing economy grows (Update)

Angry French taxi drivers have torched tires and snarled highways in recent months while top government officials denounced Uber's business practices. Police raided the company's offices in March, seizing computer files, and then took two executives into custody in June.

Target to match online prices with online rivals

Starting Thursday, Target will now match its online prices with more than two dozen online competitors including Amazon.com and Walmart.com.

Waste heat likely to boost energy efficient production

Europe has a leading position in technologies for clean manufacturing, but significant efforts are needed to lower investment costs and encourage factory managers to adopt energy-efficient innovations.

New prototype purifies air and removes pollution

In order to reduce the presence of pollutants in the atmosphere, Raul Suarez Parra, researcher at the Institute for Renewable Energy (IER) of the National University of Mexico (UNAM), created a prototype air washer that absorbs volatile organic compounds such as grease generated while cooking.

GaN diodes with high current operations and a low turn-on voltage

Panasonic Corporation today announced that it developed gallium nitride (GaN) diodes that can not only operate at a high current that is four times greater than that tolerated by conventional silicon carbide (SiC) diodes, but also operate at low voltages by virtue of their low turn-on voltage. Production of the new diodes was made possible via a newly developed hybrid structure composed of of separately embedded structure comprised of a low-voltage unit and a high-current-capable unit, in preparation for high voltage conditions.

Increased application of green biomass entails potential as well as challenges

Politically, it has been decided that Denmark should be a growth centre for bio-economy. Thus, the National Bioeconomy Panel was appointed, the primary task of which is to indicate actual initiatives to encourage a sustainable, bio-based production in which resources and products are better utilized to the benefit of the environment, the climate, growth and employment. The panel recently published a series of recommendations as to how the government may encourage the utilization of green biomass.

NYU's Simoncelli wins Engineering Emmy for creation of method to assess video quality

Eero Simoncelli, a professor in New York University's Center for Neural Science, has won an Engineering Emmy Award for the creation of a now widely used algorithm that assesses how viewers perceive the quality of an image or video, the Television Academy announced this week.

Chemistry news

Researchers print inside gels to create unique shapes

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers at the University of Florida has taken the technique of printing objects inside of a gel a step further by using a highly shear-rate sensitive gel. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team describes the technique and the wide variety of objects they were able to print.

Crystal clear: Thousand-fold fluorescence enhancement in an all-polymer thin film

Griffith University scientists have made a remarkable breakthrough in the field of fluorescence enhancement via a discovery they believe could drive the next advances in sensor technology, energy saving and harvesting, lasers and optoelectronics.

Food toxin detector incorporates camera

Each year, about 48 million Americans are sickened by foodborne diseases, and 3,000 die, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. One factor that limits widespread testing of foods for toxins that cause food poisoning is the cost of equipment.

Portable device can quickly test for sickness-causing toxins in shellfish

Mussels, oysters, scallops and clams might be ingredients for fine cuisine, but they can also be a recipe for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). That's a gastrointestinal illness people can get if those tasty morsels contain marine toxins. Now, researchers are reporting in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry the development of a portable, inexpensive device that can quickly and easily screen freshly caught shellfish for these substances.

Light does not have to be a (rapid) killer of chemical molecules

Chemical molecules strongly interacting with light generally disintegrate very rapidly. At the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, the main mechanism conducive to this destruction has been determined. This knowledge makes it possible to enhance the photostability of molecules several times over, which is of significance not only for the measurement methods used in laboratory studies, but also for manufacturers of everyday objects, especially those made of coloured polymers.

A step toward clothing that guards against chemical warfare agents

Recent reports of chemical weapons attacks in the Middle East underscore the urgent need for new ways to guard against their toxic effects. Toward that end, scientists report in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces a new hydrogel coating that neutralizes both mustard gas and nerve agent VX. It could someday be applied to materials such as clothing and paint.

A micro-supercapacitor with unmatched energy storage performance

A micro-supercapacitor made using a new electrode reached an energy density 1,000 times greater than existing electrochemical capacitors. With such a performance, comparable to current Li-ion micro-batteries, this energy storage device is a legitimate option for a range of applications from mobile electronics to wireless autonomous sensor networks. The breakthrough, detailed in an article recently published in Advanced Materials, was a collaborative effort by researchers of the INRS Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications and the Laboratory of Analysis and Architecture of Systems (LAAS-CNRS).

Hydrogen for all seasons

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich chemists have developed novel porous materials called "covalent organic frameworks", which provide a basis for the design of polymeric photocatalysts with tunable physical, chemical and electronic properties.

Tapping our microbiomes for new health treatments

Fecal transplants for treating gut diseases were the first reported therapies based on the idea that the human microbiome is inextricably linked to our health. Now, as researchers further flesh out this connection, dozens of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies are moving ahead and investigating new therapeutic directions, according to the cover story of Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society.

Biology news

Artificial light found to negatively impact wallabies

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from Australia and Germany has found that at least one species of mammal is negatively impacted by artificial lighting. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the team describes a field study they conducted on an island off the coast of Australia and what they found by doing so.

Scientists detail progressive organization of immune efficiency in lungfish

Defense systems against pathogens are a critical life-support system of fish that helps protect against infection. A complex network of immune cells and molecules that are located at the interface between the environment and the host, the mucosal immune system of vertebrates, such as fish, is the first line of defense against life-threatening pathogens.

Study show similarities and differences in gazing between humans and dogs

(Phys.org)—A study conducted by animal researchers at the University of Helsinki, has found that there are both similarities and differences in the ways humans versus dogs gaze at other people or dogs interacting. In their paper published in Royal Society Open Science, the group describes the study they carried out and what they found as a result.

Glowing sea turtle, like red and green spaceship, spotted

Seen off the Solomon Islands: The hawksbill sea turtle—glowing. Sharks, fish, corals, can shine and now we know that the sea turtle can too. Jane J. Lee reported on Tuesday in National Geographic (and environmental news site Mongabay also carried the news) that a biofluorescent sea turtle was discovered off the coast of Solomon Islands.

Scientists refine model to predict dangerous errors in cell division

A team of Virginia Tech researchers has refined a mathematical model that simulates the impact of genetic mutations on cell division—a step that could provide insight into errors that produce and sustain harmful cells, such as those found in tumors.

Real-time analysis of metabolic products

Biologists at ETH Zurich have developed a method that, for the first time, makes it possible to measure concentration changes of several hundred metabolic products simultaneously and almost in real time. The technique could inspire basic biological research and the search for new pharmaceutical agents.

Birds spread infections at feeders, according to research

Diseases may spread faster in birds that visit bird feeders frequently, according to new research from an Iowa State University ecologist.

Parenting in the animal world: Turning off the infanticide instinct

Many bachelor mammals, including lions, mountain gorillas, monkeys, and mice, attack and kill the offspring of other males—a form of infanticide—yet display parental behavior once they themselves become fathers. Now, scientists at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan have discovered two small brain regions that control which of these very opposite behaviors a male mouse will exhibit. Detailed in The EMBO Journal, the experiments show how activity patterns in two forebrain regions determine whether males have the urge to act paternally towards mouse pups or to attack them.

Plant survival under the microscope for mine rehabilitation works

Scientists will seek to understand the complex and interconnected processes that enable one of the world's most biodiverse plant communities to survive in some of the planet's poorest soils, in a three-year project conducted in the Mid West's Kwongan shrublands.

Sequencing DNA in the palm of your hand

Much like the miniature, goggle-wearing yellow organisms of the big screen that live to serve, a tiny new device called the MinION, developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies, promises to help scientists sequence DNA in space. NASA's Biomolecule Sequencer investigation is a technology demonstration of the device.

Known fish species living in the Salish Sea increases in new report

Coho salmon, Pacific halibut and even the dogfish shark are familiar faces to many people in the Salish Sea region. But what about the Pacific viperfish, northern flashlightfish, dwarf wrymouth or the longsnout prickleback?

Barley straw shows potential as transport biofuel raw material

The hemicellulose sugars of barley straw can be effectively fermented into biobutanol, when starch is added during the pre-treatment or fermentation process, shows a new University of Eastern Finland study.

Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure: Basis for handling big taxonomic data

Looked down on with scepticism by many taxonomists, handling big data efficiently is a huge challenge that can only be met with thorough and multi-layered efforts from both scientists and technological developers. Projects like the Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI), started in 2009, prove that harmonised taxonomic reference systems and high-quality data sets are possible through dynamic, expertly created and managed online tools. The methods, results and future prospects of PESI are available in the open access Biodiversity Data Journal.

Forage crop promising as ecologically friendly ornamental groundcover

A new, ecologically friendly groundcover for warm-weather landscapes is on the horizon. Rhizoma peanut, a warm-season perennial native to South America, has been used almost exclusively as a forage crop in the United States since the 1930s, but a study in the July HortScience says the perennial has potential as an ornamental groundcover or turf alternative.

Citizen science in a nutshell: A guide to expanding the reach of environmental research

Public participation in scientific research has surged in popularity and prominence in recent years through the connections of the world wide web, an explosion of smartphone pocket computing power, and a slow cultural change within professional science toward a more open and welcoming research environment.

Medicine & Health news

Competing mice reveal genetic defects

In recent years, University of Utah biologists showed that when wild-type mice compete in seminatural "mouse barns" for food, territory and mates, they can suffer health problems not revealed by conventional toxicity tests on caged lab mice.

Scientists control rats' senses of familiarity, novelty

With pulses of light in the right part of the brain at the right frequencies, Brown University scientists induced rats to behave as if things they'd seen before were novel and things they'd never seen were old hat.

Placebo power: Depressed people who respond to fake drugs get the most help from real ones

When it comes to treating depression, how well a person responds to a fake medicine may determine how well they'll respond to a real one, new research finds.

Genes that protect African children from developing malaria identified

Published today in Nature, the findings detail a new gene locus that can explain why, in communities where everyone is constantly exposed to malaria, some children develop severe malaria and others don't. Now, researchers can be sure that this particular stretch of our DNA plays a crucial role in the progression of the disease.

Experimental cancer drug shows therapeutic promise in mouse models of multiple sclerosis

An experimental drug originally identified in a National Cancer Institute library of chemical compounds as a potential therapy for brain and basal cell cancers improves the symptoms of mice with a form of the debilitating neurological disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), according to new research from NYU Langone Medical Center.

'Avatars' reveal new genetic sources of drug response in late-stage colorectal therapy

Using pieces of human tumors grafted into mice, a team led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers and their colleagues from the University of Torino has identified new mutations in six genes related to drug resistance and sensitivity in late-stage colorectal cancer.

Researchers find genes that shut down HIV-1

A pair of studies by researchers at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, the University of Trento in Italy, and the University of Geneva in Switzerland, point to a promising new anti-retroviral strategy for combating HIV-1. The two studies, published online in Nature, show that the host cell membrane proteins SERINC5 and SERINC3 greatly reduce the virulence of HIV-1 by blocking the ability of the virus to infect new cells. HIV-1 encodes a protein called Nef that counteracts the SERINCs. New drugs that target the HIV-1 protein Nef would permit the SERINC proteins to inactivate the virus. The papers will appear in the October 8 issue of Nature.

Scientists create world's largest catalog of human genomic variation (Update)

An international team of scientists from the 1000 Genomes Project Consortium has created the world's largest catalog of genomic differences among humans, providing researchers with powerful clues to help them establish why some people are susceptible to various diseases. While most differences in peoples' genomes - called variants - are harmless, some are beneficial, while others contribute to diseases and conditions, ranging from cognitive disabilities to susceptibilities to cancer, obesity, diabetes, heart disease and other disorders. Understanding how genomic variants contribute to disease may help clinicians develop improved diagnostics and treatments, in addition to new methods of prevention.

Latest technology could help curb repeat Ebola crisis, experts say

Recent developments in surveillance technology could enable a swifter, more effective response to potentially deadly outbreaks of disease, a study has found.

Dormant viral genes may awaken to cause ALS

Scientists at the National Institutes of Health discovered that reactivation of ancient viral genes embedded in the human genome may cause the destruction of neurons in some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The results, published in Science Translational Medicine, suggest a link between human endogenous retroviral genes (HERVs) and ALS. The findings also raise the question of whether antiretroviral drugs, similar to those used for suppressing HIV, may help some ALS patients.

Four gut bacteria decrease asthma risk in infants

New research by scientists at UBC and BC Children's Hospital finds that infants can be protected from getting asthma if they acquire four types of gut bacteria by three months of age. More than 300 families from across Canada participated in this research through the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study.

Study blocks inflammatory bone loss in gum disease

Periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease, doesn't just cause soft-tissue inflammation and bleeding. It also destroys the bone that supports the teeth. If it progresses unchecked, it can lead to tooth loss and is even associated with systemic inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

New study is proof-of-concept for low-cost drug made in lettuce

Biopharmaceuticals, or drugs that are based on whole proteins, are expensive to make and require refrigeration to store. Insulin, for example, is unaffordable and inaccessible to most of the global population.

3-D printing techniques help surgeons carve new ears

When surgical residents need to practice a complicated procedure to fashion a new ear for children without one, they typically get a bar of soap, carrot or an apple.

Open peer review could result in better quality of peer review

Whether or not a research article has been peer reviewed openly can seemingly make a difference to the quality of the peer review, according to research carried out by BioMed Central's Research Integrity Group and Frank Dudbridge from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. When two similar journals were compared, articles that underwent an open peer review showed a 5% improvement in the quality of the peer review reports compared to those that underwent a single blind peer review.

Educational attainment in children is associated with positive health transitions into adulthood

A longer education in childhood has been linked to positive transitions in health, according to research published today in the Journal of Public Health.

Researchers achieve 26-hour rapid whole-genome sequencing in critically ill infants

A study published today in Genome Medicine describes how researchers at Children's Mercy Kansas City cut in half the time needed for rapid whole-genome sequencing and genetic diagnosis in critically-ill infants, called STAT-Seq. Through a variety of enhancements, the Center for Pediatric Genomic Medicine at Children's Mercy completed the STAT-Seq test in 26 hours compared to 50 hours, improving on a turnaround time that was already the fastest available in the world.

Your gut development during infancy can have lifelong implications

The suckling period (infancy) in mice is critical for epigenetic changes (changes that affect the way genes are expressed) in the development of stem cells in the intestine, potentially affecting intestinal health for life. Moreover, the intestinal microbiome guides these epigenetic processes, said researchers at the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital in a report that appears today in the journal Genome Biology.

Study lays groundwork for blood test to aid in the detection and monitoring of myeloma

Virtually all patients who develop myeloma have an asymptomatic disease called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in the years before the onset of myeloma. The five-year relative survival rate for myeloma is 69% for patients diagnosed with stage I or localized disease, compared with 45% for patients with advanced cancer. Nevertheless, only 5% of myeloma cases are stage I when diagnosed. One reason may be the lack of good routine screening tests to identify patients who will progress to myeloma. A new study in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics found that abnormal levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in the bone marrow of multiple myeloma (MM) patients may also be detectable in peripheral blood, and their measurement may be a way to both mark myeloma onset and track its progression from earlier asymptomatic stages.

Primary care doctors are ill-prepared to deal with growing demand for cancer care

Leading primary care professionals and cancer experts will warn at the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) annual congress in Glasgow, UK (Oct 1-3) that primary care doctors will not be able to cope with the rising demand for cancer care in high-income countries - predicted to double within the next 15 years. But with radical improvements in diagnostic services, cancer education and training, and policies that encourage integration between primary and specialist care, primary care doctors could hold the key to meeting this growing demand for cancer care.

One-third of hormone users at menopause take unapproved, untested compounded drugs

A third of US women who take hormones at menopause are using compounded hormones, shows a new national survey. These women commonly—and mistakenly—think these hormones are safer and offer more benefits than FDA-approved therapies. But the four reports of endometrial cancer among the women who took compounded hormones point to how risky they may be. The results of the survey were published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS), and will be presented at the NAMS Annual Meeting on Saturday, October 3, in Las Vegas.

New method reveals real-time death risk of Korean MERS outbreak

University of Tokyo researchers have developed a real-time statistical method to estimate death risk (i.e., the probability of death given infection) and identify risk factors of death during an infectious disease outbreak. Using this method, the researchers revealed that the death risk of the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic in the Republic of Korea for patients with an illness prior to MERS infection was as high as 48.2% for those over 60 years while it was below 15% for younger patients. This method will be useful when the death risk of a novel infectious disease has to be quantified using data from small numbers of patients during the course of an outbreak, providing information on which age groups to minimize exposure in hospitals, nursing homes and daycare facilities.

Risk factors for prostate cancer

New research suggests that age, race and family history are the biggest risk factors for a man to develop prostate cancer, although high blood pressure, high cholesterol, vitamin D deficiency, inflammation of prostate, and vasectomy also add to the risk. In contrast, obesity, alcohol abuse, and smoking show a negative association with the disease. Details are reported in the International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics.

New study proves link between recent abuse and menopause-related symptoms

Numerous studies have already documented how abuse of any kind can result in health problems. There are even proven links between adverse childhood experiences and hot flashes. But a new study by Mayo Clinic now demonstrates the impact of recent abuse on a wide array of menopausal symptoms. The study will be presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in Las Vegas starting on September 30.

Use of local estrogens for genitourinary menopausal symptoms remains low

Local estrogens continue to be underutilized in the treatment of genitourinary symptoms of menopause, including vaginal dryness, painful intercourse and urinary tract infections. That has been proven by numerous prior studies. However, a new study coming out of Israel documents that the method of local treatment has a dramatic effect on how long women continue the treatment and adhere to treatment guidelines. The study, "Local Estrogens for Genitourinary Symptoms of Menopause. Does the Method of Treatment (Tablets or Cream) Change the Compliance and Adherence to Treatment?," will be presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in Las Vegas starting on September 30.

Impact of menopausal hormone therapy on heart disease depends on timing of initiation

The potential health effects of hormone therapy (HT) have been intensely debated for more than a decade, especially when it comes to coronary heart disease. A new study coming out of Sweden now suggests that the effects differ based on when women started taking HT. The study will be presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) on September 30.

Vitamin D3 supplementation helps women build muscle even after menopause

The benefits of vitamin D supplementation for postmenopausal women have been widely debated. But a new study from Sao Paulo, Brazil, now documents that vitamin D supplementation can significantly increase muscle strength and reduce the loss of body muscle mass in women as late as 12+ years after menopause. The study results will be presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS), which begins September 30 in Las Vegas.

UN: HIV patients should start treatment immediately

The World Health Organization has revised its HIV guidelines to recommend that anyone who tests positive for the virus that causes AIDS should be treated immediately.

UK to attempt first womb transplants

Britain will attempt to carry out its first womb transplants after a clinical trial enabling 10 women to undergo the procedure was approved, doctors said Wednesday.

Intratumor morphological heterogeneity of cancer is not related to chromosome aberrations

Intratumor morphological heterogeneity (diversity) of breast cancer is not related to chromosome aberrations. This conclusion was made based on a study by researchers from Tomsk State University (TSU), Tomsk Cancer Research Institute (TCRI), and the Institute of Medical Genetics of one case with an aggressive variant of breast cancer—invasive micropapillary carcinoma. The research has been published in Journal of Clinical Pathology June 15, 2015. The investigation was led by Vladimir Perelmuter, MD, PhD, Head of the Department of Pathological Anatomy and Cytology and Nadezhda Cherdyntseva, PhD, Head of the Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Immunology.

Scientists reveal brain network for observed social threat interactions

Observing one person threatening another is a commonplace event. Now, in research published in eLife, scientists have used large-scale neural recording and big data analysis in monkeys to enable a first glimpse of the brain remembering and recalling the memory of such negative social interactions. The research reveals the complex structure of a neural network for the observation of a negative social interaction and its retrieval from memory.

Researchers show that genetic background regulates tumour differences

Researchers from Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Broad Institute, USA, have identified both similarities and differences between a single tumour type in multiple dogs breeds; a finding they believe parallels the situation in the cancer of human patients.

Many people are forced to travel miles to get oral care—or forgo it

Low-income adults and children who are able to see a dentist at the same location as their primary care doctor are more likely to get dental care, yet almost three out of five community health clinics in California either don't offer oral health services or, if they do, the nearest facility is sometimes too far to reach for many patients, according to a new study by the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.

Influenza A viruses more likely to emerge in East Asia than North America

Novel strains of influenza A, the most common type of flu virus, are more likely to emerge in East Asia than in North America, according to a global analysis by the One Health Institute at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine and EcoHealth Alliance, an organization dedicated to conservation and health.

Travel 'superbugs' add infection risk to common procedures

Travellers exposed to antibiotic-resistant bacteria may force a change to common medical procedures that rely on effective antibiotics, say researchers from The University of Queensland.

In MS patients, HDL cholesterol has a protective effect

Several studies in recent years have shown that high cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of lesions in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the impact of HDL cholesterol—high-density lipoprotein, commonly referred to as "good" cholesterol—on the disease has not been clear.

Multiple myeloma patients more vulnerable to 'financial toxicity' due to expensive, longer courses of treatments

Even patients with health insurance who have multiple myeloma may be vulnerable to "financial toxicity" – including those who make over $100,000 a year – because of the higher use of novel therapeutics and extended duration of myeloma treatment, researchers from Penn's Abramson Cancer Center report in this week's Lancet Haematology. Nearly half of the 100 patients surveyed tapped into their savings to pay for their care, and 17 percent reported delays in treatment due to costs, the team found. Ten stopped treatment altogether.

High-volume facilities better for nursing hip fractures

There isn't a lot of information available to help family caregivers choose the best skilled nursing facility for an elderly loved one who breaks a hip, but a new study suggests a potentially useful quality indicator: the facility's number of hip fracture patients during the prior year.

Latest research on cognitive dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis patients an eye opener

In a paper published in Nature Reviews Neurology, researchers at Monash University have revealed that eye movement measures can help identify the presence and progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Lung disease may increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes, mouse study suggests

Numerous studies have identified obesity and poor diet as risk factors for insulin resistance and diabetes. A new study adds another risk factor to the list: inflammatory lung disease. Published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, the study reports that inflammation in the lungs is enough to induce the body-wide inflammation that can lead to insulin resistance.

Sleep clinics offer hope to parents of children with intellectual disabilities

Sleep clinics aimed at parents of children with challenging behaviour can improve the chances of a peaceful night, a team of specialists has concluded.

That all-nighter is not without neuroconsequences

As you put the finishing touches on your paper, you notice the sun rising and fantasize about crawling in bed. Your vision and hearing are beginning to distort and the words staring back at you from the monitor have lost their meaning. Your brain … well, feels like mush. We've all been there. That debilitating brain fog that inevitably sets in after an all-nighter prompts the obvious question: what does sleep deprivation actually do to the brain?

Children with autism benefit from theater-based program

Children with autism who participated in a 10-week, 40-hour, theatre-based program showed significant differences in social ability compared to a group of children with autism who did not participate, according to a Vanderbilt study published in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

Cognitive-behavioral prevention program for teens at-risk of depression shows benefit

A cognitive-behavioral prevention program for depression among at-risk youth showed benefit more than 6 years after the implementation of the intervention, according to an article published online by JAMA Psychiatry.

Psoriasis, risk of depression in the US population

The chronic inflammatory skin condition psoriasis was associated with the risk of major depression, although the risk was unrelated to the severity of the disorder, according to an article published online by JAMA Dermatology.

Training for patients with melanoma and their partners on skin examinations

Training on skin self-examination (SSE) to aid early detection could be extra beneficial for patients with melanoma and their partners who report having low relationship quality because it gives them activities to do together, according to an article published online by JAMA Dermatology.

Survival rate of combat casualties improves following implementation of golden hour policy

A mandate in 2009 that prehospital helicopter transport of critically injured combat casualties occur in 60 minutes or less (golden hour policy) has resulted in a reduction in time between critical injury and definitive care for combat casualties in Afghanistan and an improvement in survival, according to a study published online by JAMA Surgery.

New portable device counts leukocytes through the skin

A novel way to count white blood cells without a blood test, simply by applying a small device on the fingertip, is being developed by a team of young bioengineers. The technology, that combines an optical sensor with algorithms, has already produced three prototypes and is specially designed for use on chemotherapy patients, who could know their immune system levels in real time. It could also serve to detect serious infections.

Human visual cortex holds neurons that selectively respond to intermediate colors

Researchers from Tohoku University's Research Institute of Electrical Communication and RIKEN BSI have found the presence of neurons in the human brain which can each selectively respond to an intermediate color; not just neurons of red, green, yellow and blue.

Stress causes infants to resort to habits

Under stress, people are inclined to resort to habits, rather than trying out new things. In the journal PNAS, psychologists from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum and the Technische Universität Dortmund report that this is true not only for adults, but also for infants.

Antipsychotics increase risk of death in people with Parkinson's disease psychosis

Antipsychotic drugs may increase the risk of death in people with Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP), according to a new study led by researchers from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King's College London.

Short, intense exercise bursts can reduce heart risk to teens

Adolescents who perform just eight to ten minutes of high-intensity interval exercise three times a week could be significantly reducing their risk of developing heart conditions, new research has concluded.

Canadian magazines miss the mark on skin cancer messages

Canadian magazines are sending women mixed messages about skin cancer and tanning, according to new University of Waterloo research.

Study's message to recovering alcoholics: Quit smoking to stay sober

Adult smokers with a history of problem drinking who continue smoking are at a greater risk of relapsing three years later compared with adults who do not smoke. Results of the study by researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the City University of New York appear online in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.

Our environment shapes our language

In a series of experiments recently published in Cognition, researchers from Interacting Minds Centre at Aarhus University, Peer Christensen, Riccardo Fusaroli and Kristian Tylén, show that novel communication systems reflect a variety of environmental and interactional factors. These findings challenge long-established ideas that syntax is innate and strongly determined by cognitive biases.

Why do people with :schizophrenia misinterpret social cues?

A new study from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King's College London sheds light on why people with schizophrenia misinterpret social cues in others, often leading to unpleasant paranoid and persecutory thoughts.

Less sleep may mean less sex after menopause

(HealthDay)—Too little sleep may lead to too little intimacy for postmenopausal women, a new study finds.

Some oncologists are being asked to solicit donations

(HealthDay)—Some institutions are asking physicians to solicit donations from patients, although most physicians agree this could impact the physician-patient relationship, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Doctors trained to be confidantes for risk-taking teenagers

Doctors have successfully reduced risk-taking behavior in teenagers and young people, in a world-first trial led by the University of Melbourne.

Aspects of patient/physician interaction may help alleviate heartburn symptoms

The results of a small study of patients being treated for chronic heartburn suggest that the longer, more comprehensive interaction that is typical of visits with complementary and integrative medicine providers may result in greater symptom relief than conventional visits. The results of the study by investigators from the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center appear in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.

Scientific literature overstates psychotherapy's effectiveness in treating depression

The scientific literature paints an overly rosy picture of the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression.

Colds, flu may temporarily increase stroke risk in kids

Stroke is very rare in children, but colds, flu and other minor infections may temporarily increase stroke risk in children, according to a study published in the September 30, 2015, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The study also found routine childhood vaccines may decrease the risk of stroke.

Cutting nicotine key to helping smokers quit

Two decades after a UCSF researcher proposed that reducing nicotine in cigarettes as a national regulatory policy might facilitate quitting, a new study he co-authored has added to a body of evidence that indicates that doing just that may accomplish this goal. The study follows 2009 legislation that allows the Food and Drug Administration to limit the amount of nicotine in cigarettes.

Severely obese children may be at higher risk of heart disease and diabetes

More than 3 million children in the United States who are severely obese may be at a higher risk of developing heart disease and diabetes than overweight children, according to a new study by researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. And these medical problems could cost billions.

Menopausal women experiencing distressing pain during sex

Results from qualitative research of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) show that they recognize the significant physical, emotional and psychological consequences of untreated dyspareunia (painful sex) yet they continue to suffer because of misperceptions about the condition and a general lack of understanding about treatment options.

Swap the couch for a walk to avoid an early death

Swapping just one hour of sitting with walking or other physical activity each day decreases your chance of an early death by 12 to 14 per cent, according to a University of Sydney study of over 200,000 Australians.

Study offers insight on how a new class of antidepressants works

A new class of drugs under development to treat depression has shown some success by targeting brain cells' ability to respond to the chemical messenger glutamate. But the mechanism by which these experimental therapies work has remained unknown.

Doctors often overtreat with radiation in late-stage lung cancer

Almost half of patients with advanced lung cancer receive more than the recommended number of radiation treatments to reduce their pain, according to a new study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Relationship quality affects siblings' mental health, risky behaviors

Latinos are the fastest-growing ethnic minority group in the United States, and most are of Mexican origin, previous research has shown. The Latino culture, more than others, places a high value on the family unit; yet, little research has examined the dynamics of Latino family relationships and how those dynamics affect children's development. Now, a University of Missouri researcher found sibling relationship quality in adolescence affects Mexican-origin adolescents' and young adults' later depressive symptoms and their involvement in risky behaviors, including those with sexual risk.

New predictor of health complications can identify high-risk preemies

Premature infants have heightened risks of deadly diseases because their organs and immune systems are not fully developed. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a major gastrointestinal disease that causes the intestines to die, is a leading cause of death among these infants and is the most the common disease for babies born before 32 weeks. Now, University of Missouri researchers have found that the early and persistent presence of white blood cells during NEC, known as blood eosinophilia, is a predictor of life-threatening complications for preemies. Researchers say neonatologists in intensive care units should look for eosinophilia after the onset of NEC to reduce complications and shorten hospitalizations.

Rare Q fever outbreak reported in American medical tourists

Five Americans came down with an unusual illness after traveling to Germany for a controversial treatment involving injections with sheep cells, health officials reported Wednesday.

Scientists identify key receptor as potential target for treatment of autism

Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have uncovered a significant—and potentially treatable—relationship between a chemical that helps transmit signals in the brain and genetic mutations present in a subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

System may offer new hope for personalized treatment of eczema

Pharmaceutical researchers at Oregon State University have developed a new approach to treat eczema and other inflammatory skin disorders that would use individual tests and advanced science to create personalized treatments based on each person's lipid deficiencies.

Antibody treatment efficacious in psoriasis

An experimental, biologic treatment, brodalumab, achieved 100 percent reduction in psoriasis symptoms in twice as many patients as a second, commonly used treatment, according to the results of a multicenter clinical trial led by Mount Sinai researchers and published online today in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Patients should be encouraged to use free e-cigarettes in hospitals, argues academic

Hospitals should encourage the use of free e-cigarettes on hospital grounds to improve the health of patients and the wider public, argues an expert in The BMJ today.

'Boomerang' cancer therapy wins medical category in iGEM competition

The student team from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev has just won the Best Heath and Medicine Project category in the prestigious 12th annual iGEM 2015 Giant Jamboree (International Genetically Engineered Machine) competition with their cutting-edge biological cancer therapy called "Boomerang." Click here for website and video.

New study examines moral distress in emergency nurses

A first-of-its-kind study from Emergency Nurses Association (ENA), published online in the Journal of Emergency Nursing, finds that moral distress in the emergency department is an experience distinct to those working in that specific environment, compared to nurses in other specializations.

More support needed to make shopping easier for people with intellectual disabilities

Better support can greatly improve the supermarket shopping experience for people with intellectual (learning) disabilities, a study by an independent self-advocacy group reveals.

The mess that trials stopped early can leave behind

Many trials end with a whimper. But some end with a bang.

Airport X-ray screening systems comply with health and safety standards for radiation exposure

Machines that use advanced X-ray imaging technology to screen airport passengers comply with radiation exposure limits set by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The report also finds that the machines adhere to the recommended safety mechanisms described in the ANSI/HPS standards to prevent overexposure to radiation in the event of a mechanical failure or deliberate tampering.

New prostate cancer treatments could target metabolism

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the U.S. The challenge with prostate cancer is that the standard treatment methods in the advanced stage of the disease lose effectiveness after about one to two years, leading to recurrence and, ultimately, death. A University of Houston researcher and his team are working to change that.

Ebola cannot be conquered without understanding Africa's culture, politics and poverty

Felix I. Ikuomola, MD, Liberia's Physician of the Year in 2006, recounts his real-life experiences with Ebola while analyzing the influences of war, cultural traditions, politics and poverty in the spread of the disease in (published by iUniverse, July 10, 2015.)

USDA: Pig virus that struck US similar to China strain

Federal agriculture officials say the virus that killed more than 8 million baby pigs in 2013 and 2014 likely came into the United States on reusable tote bags used in international trade.

Other Sciences news

Are American schools making inequality worse?

The answer appears to be yes. Schooling plays a surprisingly large role in short-changing the nation's most economically disadvantaged students of critical math skills, according to a study published today in Educational Researcher, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.

Literacy expert pushes 'play' on educational games

Are computer games for learning or just for fun? That's the question Hiller Spires, NC State professor of literacy and technology, tackles in a commentary for the Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy.

Premarital births no longer predict breakups

Examining changes in parental unions near the time of childbirth, social science researchers have found that premarital births do not predict breakups so long as couples marry – at some point – after a child is born.

Why it hurts to see others suffer—pain and empathy linked in the brain

The human brain processes the experience of empathy – the ability to understand another person's pain – in a similar way to the experience of physical pain. This was the finding of a paper that specifically investigated the kind of empathy people feel when they see others in pain – but it could apply to other forms of empathy too. The results raise a number of intriguing questions, such as whether painkillers or brain damage could actually reduce our ability to feel empathy.

Can digging up 100-year-old bodies help crack unsolved murders?

Imagine the untold misery caused by telling the wrong family that their loved one is dead while another family is left in blissful ignorance. That's why accurately identifying bodies is of paramount importance.

Mobile apps and online reviews influence consumer behavior

Mobile apps are changing the way brands connect with consumers and have the potential to boost a company's bottom line. According to a new Iowa State University study, there is a direct link between app use and purchase activity – the more engaging the app, the more customers will spend.

Math and me: Children who identify with math get higher scores

How strongly children identify with math (their math "self-concept") can be used to predict how high they will score on a standardized test of math achievement, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Washington.

New study explores how Millennials consume paid media content

A majority of Millennials regularly got paid news content in the last year, whether paid for by themselves or someone else, according to a new study conducted by the Media Insight Project, a collaboration between the American Press Institute and The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. Moreover, 40 percent of Millennials personally paid for news. The study is a deeper examination of a nationwide survey conducted in early 2015.

New system helps teachers gain back valuable instruction time, study finds

Elementary schoolchildren often dawdle between activities during the school day, losing valuable instructional time in the process. New University of Georgia research has found a way to reclaim these lost minutes and make the transition to a new subject fun while increasing student focus.

One in four young adults in Philadelphia are "disconnected" from both work and school

One in four people in Philadelphia between the ages of 18 and 24 are "disconnected" from the labor market – out of school and out of work – according to a new study from Drexel University's Center for Labor Markets and Policy. Nationally, only 17.7 percent of the age group were disconnected.

Memory is greater threat to romantic relationships than Facebook

A new study was designed to test whether contacts in a person's Facebook friends list who are romantically desirable are more or less of a threat to an existing relationship than are potential partners a person can recall from memory. In this Facebook versus memory experiment participants were shown their friends list to trigger recognition of potential sexual partners, but the study showed that Facebook friends were not seen as romantic alternatives that threatened current committed relationships, as reported in an article published in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.

Excavator: Ancient grave in Greece honored Alexander's pal

An opulent underground monument in northern Greece that caused a stir when excavated last year may have been a symbolic grave—but not the final resting place of—the closest friend and general of ancient warrior-king Alexander the Great, the excavator says.

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